Saturday, June 30, 2007


A medication is a drug taken to treat and reduce any symptoms of an illness or medical condition, or may be used as precautionary medicine that has future benefits but does not treat any existing or pre-existing diseases or symptoms. Provision of medication is often keeping up by the government into three categories — over the counter (OTC) medications, which are available in pharmacies and supermarket's without special limitations, behind the counter (BTC), which are dispensed by a pharmacist without needing a doctor's prescription, and Prescription only medicines (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical professional, as a rule a physician.Most Over the counter medications are normally considered to be safe enough that most people will not hurt themselves if they are taken as instructed. In UK, BTC medicine is called pharmacy medicines which can only be sold in registered pharmacies, by or under the supervision of a pharmacist. However, the precise difference between OTC and prescription depends on the legal jurisdiction.

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Monday, June 25, 2007


Infrared (IR) emission is electromagnetic emission of a wavelength longer than that of noticeable light, but shorter than that of radio waves. The name means "below red", red being the color of detectable light of longest wavelength. Infrared radiation spans three instructions of magnitude and has wavelengths between about 750 nm and 1 mm.

These divisions are suitable by the different human response to this radiation: near infrared is the area closest in wavelength to the radiation detectable by the human eye, mid and far infrared are gradually further from the visible regime. Other definitions follow different physical mechanisms and the newest follow technical reasons .Unfortunately the international standards for these specifications are not currently obtainable.

The boundary between visible and infrared light is not precisely defined. The human eye is markedly less responsive to light above 700 nm wavelength, so longer frequencies make irrelevant contributions to scenes illuminated by common light sources. But particularly strong light (e.g., from lasers, or from bright daylight with the visible light removed by colored gels can be detected up to approximately 780 nm, and will be apparent as red light. The onset of infrared is defined at different values typically between 700 nm and 780 nm.

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Wednesday, June 20, 2007


Cooking is the act of preparing food for eating. The term cooking encompasses all methods of food preparation with non-heated methods. It encompasses a huge range of methods, tools and combinations of ingredients to change the taste or digestibility of food. It is the method of select, measuring and combining of ingredients in an planned procedure in an try to get the desired result. Factors affecting the finishing outcome include the inconsistency of ingredients, ambient conditions, tools, and the skill of the person doing the actual cooking.

The variety of cooking universal is a reflection of the many nutritional, aesthetic, agricultural, cultural and religious considerations that crash upon it.

Cooking frequently requires applying heat to a food, which regularly, though not always, chemically transforms it, thus varying its flavor, texture, appearance, and nutritional properties. There is archaeological proof of roasted foodstuffs, both animal and vegetable, in human campsites dating from the initial known use of fire, some 800,000 years ago

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Thursday, June 14, 2007

Health insurance

Health insurance is a type of insurance whereby the insurer pays the medical costs of the insured if the insured becomes sick due to covered causes, or due to accidents. The insurer may be a private organization or a government agency. Market-based health care systems such as that in the United States rely primarily on private health insurance.

The concept of health insurance was proposed in 1694 by Hugh the Elder Chamberlen from the Peter Chamberlen family. In the late 19th century, early health insurance was actually disability insurance, in the sense that it covered only the cost of emergency care for injuries that could lead to a disability[citation needed]. This payment model continued until the start of the 21st century in some jurisdictions (like California), where all laws regulating health insurance actually referred to disability insurance[citation needed]. Patients were expected to pay all other health care costs out of their own pockets, under what is known as the fee-for-service business model.

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Saturday, June 09, 2007


Politics is the method by which groups make decisions. It is the solid allocation of values. Although the term is usually applied to performance within governments, politics is observed in all human group relations, as well as corporate, academic, and religious institutions.

In its most basic form, politics consists of "social affairs involving authority or power". In practice, the term refers to the rule and government of a nation-state and to the methods and plans used to formulate and apply government policy.

In a broader sense, any circumstances involving power, or any maneouvring in arrange to improve one's power or status within a group, may be described as politics. This form of politics "is most connected with a struggle for superiority among groups having different priorities and power relations”.

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Monday, June 04, 2007


Gold is a extremely sought-after valuable metal that for many centuries has been used as money, a store of value and in ornaments. The metal occurs as nugget or grains in rocks and in alluvial deposits and is one of the coinage metals. It is a soft, glossy, yellow, dense, malleable, and ductile change metal. Modern manufacturing uses include dentistry and electronics. Gold forms the basis for a financial typical used by the International Monetary Fund and the Bank for International resolution . Its ISO currency code is XAU.

Gold is a tinny element with a trait yellow color, but can also be black or ruby when finely alienated, while colloidal solutions are intensely tinted and often purple. These colors are the effect of gold's plasmon frequency lying in the visible range, which causes red and yellow glow to be reflected, and blue light to be engrossed. Only silver colloids show the same interactions with light, albeit at a shorter occurrence, making silver colloids yellow in color.

Gold is a good conductor of temperature and electricity, and is not precious by air and most reagents. Heat, damp, oxygen, and most corrosive agents have very little chemical effect on gold, making it well-suited for use in coins and jewelry; equally, halogens will chemically alter gold, and aqua regia dissolve it.

Pure gold is too soft for ordinary use and is hard-boiled by alloying with silver, copper, and other metals. Gold and its lots of alloys are most often used in jewelry, coinage and as a typical for monetary exchange in various countries. When promotion it in the form of jewelry, gold is calculated in karats , with pure gold being 24k. However, it is more commonly sold in lower capacity of 22k, 18k, and 14k. A lower "k" indicates a higher percent of copper or silver assorted into the alloy, with copper being the more typically used metal between the two. Fourteen karat gold-copper alloy will be almost identical in color to definite bronze alloys, and both may be used to produce polish and added badges. Eighteen karat gold with a high copper content is establish in some traditional jewelry and will have a distinct, though not dominant copper cast, giving an attractively warm color. A comparable karat weight when alloyed with silvery metals will appear less humid in color, and some low karat white metal alloys may be sold as "white gold", silvery in exterior with a slightly yellow cast but far more resistant to decay than silver or sterling silver. Karat weights of twenty and higher is more general in modern jewelry. Because of its high electrical conductivity and confrontation to decay and other desirable combinations of physical and chemical properties, gold also emerged in the late 20th century as an vital industrial metal, particularly as thin plating on electrical card associates and connectors.

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